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While the precise definitions and requirements of proof vary among jurisdictions, the requisite elements of fraud as a tort generally are the intentional misrepresentation or concealment of an important fact upon which the victim is meant to rely, and in fact does rely, to the harm of the victim.That difficulty is found, for instance, in that each and every one of the elements of fraud must be proven, that the elements include proving the states of mind of the perpetrator and the victim, and that some jurisdictions require the victim to prove fraud by clear and convincing evidence.Some jurisdictions impose a higher evidentiary standard, such as Washington State's requirement that the elements of fraud be proved with clear, cogent, and convincing evidence (very probable evidence), Special damages may be allowed if shown to have been proximately caused by defendant's fraud and the damage amounts are proved with specificity.Many jurisdictions permit a plaintiff in a fraud case to seek punitive or exemplary damages.Lack of funds in law enforcement budgets should not be the reason that criminals escape prosecution and incarceration.CUFF uses private, tax-deductible donations to help locate and prosecute criminals and bring justice to the victims and the community.If you have also been a victim of these photos, a documentary filmmaker would like to hear from you: "Loving Jim Goetz" - A film by Eva van Pelt.
High value frauds can also include additional penalties. government's 2006 fraud review concluded that fraud is a significantly under-reported crime, and while various agencies and organizations were attempting to tackle the issue, greater co-operation was needed to achieve a real impact in the public sector.For example, in California losses of 0,000 or more will result in an extra two, three, or five years in prison in addition to the regular penalty for the fraud. The scale of the problem pointed to the need for a small but high-powered body to bring together the numerous counter-fraud initiatives that existed.According to Bloomberg, auto loan application fraud rates in the United States has been steadily rising over the past few years."Half of all UK companies say that they have been the victim of fraud or of economic crime in the last two years [2016-2018], according to a major survey conducted by professional services firm Pw C." In January 2018 the Financial Times reported that the value of UK fraud hit a 15-year high of £2.11bn in 2017 according to a study.The article said that the accountancy firm BDO examined reported fraud cases worth more than £50,000 and found that the total number rose to 577 in 2017, compared with 212 in 2003.