European dating in the 1500 s
A series of parallel streets, each named for its original intended occupants (e.g., Rua Áurea [“Golden Street”] for the goldsmiths), runs north from Commerce Square to Dom Pedro IV Square, locally known as Avenida da Liberdade.
This treelined boulevard leads north from the city centre to Marquês de Pombal Circle, which features a statue of Pombal.
In 1988 a fire destroyed part of the city’s historic Chiado district, which was rebuilt as a shopping area during the 1990s.
Rua Garrett in Chiado is lined with boutiques, silver and porcelain shops, cafés, and bookstores.
Scenically spectacular, this hill-cradled bay of burnished water lies on a strategic sea route and serves as a busy port, handling much of the trade between Portugal and Spain.
Lisbon is built in a succession of terraces up the slopes of a range of low rolling hills that rise from the banks of the Tagus River and the Mar de Palha northwest toward the Sintra Mountains, whose covering of lush Mediterranean and Atlantic European flora provides an attractive retreat for the city’s population.
Vessels tie up at quays where the clang of trolley cars blends with ships’ horns.
At dawn, fishing boats deposit their catch for noisy auction with Lisbon shop owners while the fish vendors wait to fill the baskets they peddle through the streets.
That event sparked the city’s biggest renewal project since the rebuilding that followed the 1755 earthquake, including the construction of the combined road-rail Vasco da Gama Bridge and other extensive upgrades of the city’s transportation infrastructure.
In this area, on the hill where Lisbon was first founded, the Castle of St.
George (Castelo de São Jorge) towers over the city.
Sections of the city vary considerably in elevation, especially in the older areas along the water’s edge, which offer splendid views of the river and the low cliffs that line the river’s southern shore.
Several geologic faults cross Lisbon and the surrounding region, but, notwithstanding the devastating earthquake of 1755, seismic activity has been limited to slight tremors since the 20th century.
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Peripheral neighbourhoods, such as Ajuda to the west, Rato-Amoreiras to the north, and Graça to the east, were also planned at this time.