In cases of extreme decay, the original canvas may be completely removed and replaced.Lining has been very widely practiced, and during the nineteenth century, some painters had their works lined immediately after, or sometimes even before, completion.However, it is likely that the world of exquisite refinery of Vermeer's compositions did not accurately portray the world he actually observed. Willemijn Fock, a historian of the decorative arts, has demonstrated that floors paved with marble tiles, one of the most ubiquitous features of Dutch interior paintings, were extremely rare in the Dutch seventeenth-century houses.Only in the houses of the very wealthy were floors of this type were occasionally found, although they were usually confined to smaller spaces such as (the entrance or corridor) where they would be most likely to be admired by incoming guests.Realism attempts to represent people, objects, or places in a realistic manner as opposed to an idealized way; also, a later nineteenth century art movement in France which objected to the idealized style of Romanticism by creating works that depicted a more faithful view of everyday life.Without underestimating the efforts of (Dutch) interior painters to make their works seem realistic, it is important to be aware up to what point we are dealing with modified reality.The new lining canvas was pressed down onto the back of the picture by hand; then the outer edges of the lining cloth were fastened to the table by means of a large number of tacks, and a piece of wood with a rounded edge was passed over the back of the cloth, to ensure perfect adhesion.
The term raking light may also be used to describe a strongly angled light represented in illusionist painting, although not strictly between 5º and 30º.Raking light gives volume to objects and accentuates texture.It is best used to create dramatic and moody images.Fock reasons that the abundant representations of these floors in Dutch genre painting may be explained by the fact that "artists were attracted by the challenge involved in representing the difficult perspective of receding multicolored marble tiling." Vermeer should not be considered a realist painter in the strictest sense of the word.He frequently modified the scale, the shape of objects and even the fall of shadows for compositional or thematic reasons. One of the most striking examples of this modified reality is a so-called picture-within-a-picture, : The relining, or lining as it is also called, of a painting is a process of restoration used to strengthen, flatten or consolidate oil or tempera paintings on canvas by attaching a new canvas to the back of the existing one.
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Since it is easier to evaluate an object's form, color and texture when it is illuminated rather than when it is in shadow, the a wider angle of light is generally preferable.