Curricula are employed for validating formal dating and the hsp

This helps them transfer their learning to new situations and better prepares them for future learning (Bransford and Schwartz, 2000).

Providing students with frequent opportunities to apply what they learn in multiple contexts requires a reallocation of instructional time.

Their knowledge is organized into meaningful patterns and structures and is conditionalized (situated), meaning that what they know is accompanied by a specification of the contexts in which it is useful (Glaser, 1992; Simon, 1980).

Many curricula and instructional materials, however, are not designed to help students conditionalize their knowledge.

The systemic and dynamic relationship among the four elements also means that changes in one element affect and require changes in the others.

In addition, it is essential to recognize the critical role of the learning environment in fostering learning with understanding.

If students are able to draw on their cultural, social, and historical experiences in problem-solving situations, they are more likely to deepen their understanding.

When curriculum is designed to build on students’ experiences, teachers are able to engage students’ prior knowledge, expose and restructure their knowledge and remediate misconceptions, and enhance motivation to learn.

The previous chapter describes seven principles that support learning with understanding.

This chapter explores the implications of those principles for the intentional and systemic design of four key elements of the educational system—curriculum, instruction, assessment, and professional development—to promote learning with understanding within the context of advanced study.

Such a curriculum emphasizes depth of understanding over breadth of coverage.

It is designed to provide genuine opportunities for high-quality instruction and multiple points of entry into mathematics and science (Au and Jordan, 1981; Brown, 1994; Heath, 1983; Tharp and Gallimore, 1988).

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The emphases of a curriculum for supporting learning with understanding are presented in Table 7-1.

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