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Part II provides 12 examples in the areas of adapting existing materials, mediating existing materials, and selecting alternate materials. (506 pages; glossary; references; supplements: instructor's manual, test bank, and inclusion video) Winebrenner, S. According to the author, the strategies are not linked to a specific category of disability but are designed to be matched to the particular learning and behavioral characteristics of the student, the learning outcomes expected, and the demands of the environment and material utilized. Accommodation is accomplished by adapting the learning environment, behavioral environment, and/or physical environment for the student. Topics addressed include: learning styles; reading, writing, science, social studies and mathematics instruction and adaptations that have proven effective; improving the organization and study skills of students; assessing and evaluating what students learn, including the use of authentic assessment (e.g., portfolios, performances, exhibitions, and demonstrations); teaching students to behave appropriately; homework; and strategies for conducting productive parent-teacher meetings. The book provides a myriad of suggestions for adaptations, accommodations, modifications, and supports for students within the general education environment. University of Nevada, Las Vegas In recent years, NICHCY has received an increasing number of requests for information on how to make adaptations and accommodations for students with disabilities in both general and special education classrooms.
Six typical types of adaptations are identified: input (such as use of videos, computer, or field trips), output (how learners will demonstrate understanding), size (the length of the assignment learners will be expected to complete), time (how much time learners will have to complete the assignment), difficulty (how the complexity of the lesson will be modified), and level of support (how much assistance will be provided to learners). The guide also discusses which modifications and accommodations are, and are not, appropriate for paraeducators to implement. Specific adaptations to basic skills instruction and subject area content are also discussed, including teaching pre-skills, implementing the Pre P (Pre Reading Plan) strategy, using advance organizers, and constructing study guides and graphic organizers. The third section includes an appendix with reproducible worksheets and resources to assist with inclusive education. (107 pages; references) Hounshell, M., Irwin, M., Ely, S., Soto, S., Janes, M. This manual is intended to help teachers use technology as a tool in adapting curriculum and instruction. The introductory chapter describes each of these principles. The authors present examples of these six principles for beginning reading and expository writing. These sections contain a substantial amount of information regarding the adaptations, modifications, or accommodations that can be made in the classroom environment or instructional activities to meet the specific needs of the learner. Chapters addressing written language and mathematics evaluation and instruction also provide strategies for working with students whose learning styles dictate the need for modifications to the curriculum and teaching methods. This text presents information about best practices in special education curriculum and instruction. "Tips for Teachers" is another feature of the text and provides practical information for working with students with disabilities. In Chapters 3-5 the authors list six types of assessment accommodations—setting, presentation, timing, response, scheduling, and other—and include examples of each. This teacher- and parent-friendly book begins with the goals of inclusion and an overview of the requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 1990 with respect to educating students with disabilities in the least restrictive environment with the provision of supplementary aids and services.
All of the resources are rich with suggestions and techniques that can help teachers and, ultimately, students. This one-page article provides guidelines for teachers on grading procedures for students in general education classes. This easy-to-read article suggests that making effective accommodations for students requires joint planning and evaluation by both general and special education teachers. This easy-to-use form can help teachers detail the modifications in materials, natural supports, or teacher/adult service provider supports that may help a student participate in a given activity with his or her peers. The authors then give an overview of methods that general educators can use to extend their adaptation strategies. Mechanical obstacles to writing: What can teachers do to help students with learning problems? This article presents eight methods for helping students overcome the spelling obstacle to writing and achieve success with grade-level writing activities: (1) have the student dictate; (2) prompt by precueing the spelling; (3) teach a strategy for using a word book; (4) have the student ask the teacher; (5) encourage invented spelling; (6) promote peer collaboration; (7) teach a self-checking strategy; and (8) have students use technology. Strategies for enhancing organizational and study skills include limiting choices, providing envelopes to organize information or papers, and distributing discussion questions prior to the lesson for some students. This article describes three ways to modify a textbook: tape recording the textbook, highlighting information in the textbook, or providing the student with a high-interest/low-level vocabulary alternative. Enhance your chances for success with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The author presents 20 strategies for working with students with ADHD in the general education classroom.
We have included a description of each resource so that readers can select the ones that are most relevant to their needs and their students. For example, teacher can award regular letter grades, or use a variety of alternative methods that allow the student to demonstrate that he or she has mastered the content. The systematic adaptation of instructional materials and techniques for problem learners. The author suggests that, in order to be effective in adapting materials and methods, the characteristics of the material or instructional technique and the characteristics of the learner must be compared. Effective accommodations for students with exceptionalities. Four categories of accommodations are discussed—altering the instructional grouping or arrangement, altering the lesson format, altering the goals, and altering the educator's teaching style. These methods include curriculum-based measurement with peer-assisted learning strategies. The authors also suggest modifications that can be made within reading, writing, listening, and speaking activities that are an integral component of all language arts activities. The author suggests four strategies for altering instructional procedures to assist the student with the mastery of content: teaching textbook structure, teaching previewing strategies, providing advance organizers to the student, and preteaching critical vocabulary. Strategies include environmental adaptations such as using proximity control and incorporating movement into lessons, and adaptations to the way the material is presented, such as developing graphic organizers, making copies of overheads and board notes, and breaking assignments into smaller chunks. The authors address adaptations and accommodations to the instructional process within several of this book's 12 chapters.
This allows students to access the general curriculum and other learning materials and activities and to demonstrate what they have learned.
As they experience success in the classroom, motivation and learning increase, and overall student outcomes improve. A change in focus: Teaching diverse learners within an inclusive elementary school classroom. The authors present a list of modifications that can be made for diverse learners in language arts activities in three areas: (a) context for learning; (b) instructional strategies/materials; and (c) organizational and study skills.